Old Testament Bible Dictionary
The book of Judges reveals events that happened between 1004 when David established his throne in Jerusalem and after Saul was anointed king 1051 BC. It was written in wisdom and poetry and contains three literary genres, poetry, riddles, and narrative history. The book was divided into two 21 chapters, which Chapter 1-16 gives an account of the war of deliverance beginning with Israelites defeat of the Canaanites and ending with the defeat of the Philistines. Chapter 17-21, talks about the death of Samson. The main themes of Judges are the problems with people today is one of the main themes of judges. The main personalities of the book are Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Abimelech, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Delilah. The main events happen after the death of Joshua(1:1). After Joshua died, the Israelites ask the Lord, who should go up first to fight the Canaanites. Judah was the first of the tribe selected. The tribe of Simeon helped the tribe of Judah drives enemies off the land. Ephraim and Manasseh attempted to clear their land as well but didn’t clear out all the former inhabitants. The other tribes were unable to clear all the Canaanites off their allotted inheritance. The Judges took place in ancient Canaan, the Promised Land given by God to the Jews. Under Joshua, the land was conquered by the Jews with the help of God after Joshua’s death, the lack of central government led to infighting among the tribes and periodic oppression by the wicked people who lived there. The purpose of the book is to teach the Israel that God is faithful and to punish sin. Therefore, each individual must remain loyal and devoted to him. The book shows the purpose of the land the results of unfaithfulness similar to what we have seen in the past.
“Judges Summary.” Judges Summary. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://biblehub.com/summary/judges/1.htm>.
“The Main Events in the Book of Judges.” HubPages. HubPages, n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://hubpages.com/religion-philosophy/The-Main-Events-in-the-Book-of-Judges>.
“Book of Judges.” Book of Judges. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://mb-soft.com/believe/txs/judges.htm>.
“Introduction.” The Institute for Creation Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.icr.org/books/defenders/5427>.
“An Introduction to the Book of Judges.” Bible.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <https://bible.org/article/introduction-book-judges>.
Malachi was known to be the writer of the book of Malachi, the last book of the Old Testament. Malachi is a prophet who lived in the fifth century BC. By this time the Jews had become disillusioned and apathetic. Malachi is the most maligned prophet in the Bible because of his outspoken mention on tithing. But Moses wrote more laws on it than anyone. The prophet Malachi uses the answer/question methods to probe deeply into an Israel’s problems of hypocrisy, infidelity, divorce, perfidious worship, and arrogance. The words are from the Lord through the prophet Malachi didn’t phase the Jesus. Until John the Baptist came, God had remained silent and stop communicating to His people through a prophet source. The prophesied that Malachi was designed to break through the barrier of Israel’s disbelief, disappoint and discouragement. Malachi was the ultimate writing Prophet that serves God under the laws of Moses. Malachi lived 400 years before the birth of Christ, at the time of the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity. Malachi was the last prophets in Old Testament his prophecies was for telling the coming of Christ; the reprobation of the Jews and they’re scarifies; the calling of the Gentiles, who offered up to God in every place that is acceptable to sacrifice. Malachi is the prophet that wrote his prophecy before Ezra came to Jerusalem, which he came earlier than either Zechariah and Haggai. Malachi was devoted to God and his righteousness; he rebukes the same sins as did Nehemiah. Malachi wrote between two periods of Nehemiah’s stay and governing in Jerusalem.
N.p., n.d. Web. <http://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/bible-prophet-malachi/>.
“Old Testament Student Manual Kings-Malachi.” “Behold, I Will Send You Elijah the Prophet” (Malachi). N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <https://www.lds.org/manual/old-testament-student-manual-kings-malachi/chapter-34?lang=eng>.
“Topical Bible: Malachi.” Topical Bible: Malachi. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://biblehub.com/topical/m/malachi.htm>.
“Book of Malachi Explained.” Book of Malachi Explained. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.bible-studys.org/Bible%20Books/Malachi/Book%20of%20Malachi.html>.
“Walking Thru The Bible.” HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH And MALACHI. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://home.hiwaay.net/~wgann/walk/malachi.htm>.
“Holy Prophet Malachi.” – Orthodox Church in America. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://oca.org/saints/lives/2013/01/03/100013-holy-prophet-malachi>.
“GotQuestions.org.” GotQuestions.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.gotquestions.org/Book-of-Malachi.html>.
“Malachi.” Malachi. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://malachi.jesusanswers.com/>.
“The Old Testament – A Brief Overview.” The Story of the Bible. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.bible-history.com/old-testament/malachi.html>.
Samaria is the ancient capital of the northern kingdom of Israel which is the Assyrians 722 BC after 200 years of idolatry and rebellion against God. After many people resettled in other lands the Assyrians located in Gentiles(non-Jews) from other areas in the region, which is a result of mix Jews and Gentiles who were known as Samaritans. Samaria or the Shomron is a name for the mountainous, Central Region of the ancient Levant, based on the borders of the biblical Norther. The Kingdom of Israel and especially the Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. The name Samaria derives from the ancient city of Samaria, the capital of the Kingdom. In modern times, the territory is referred to as the West Bank. Sebastia served as the capital of Israel until its destruction by the Assyrian army in 722 BCE. During the Hellenistic era, it became home to a Macedonian community called Sebastia. During the period of the Second Temple, Herod altered the name of the city, as is related by Josephus Flavius. Part of the wall of the Israelite city was discovered near the southern end of the Basilica, where three strata of stones laid over the rock formation were preserved. This construction is characteristic of the period of Israelite rule – several of the stones’ margins were chiseled, but their center remained prominent. In some cases, the stones were set horizontally, while others were laid vertically. Excavations carried out at the site revealed a fortress that had apparently been built at the top of the hill during Ahab’s reign, or possibly during that of Omri, his father. The fort was designed to withstand a siege and was surrounded by an inner wall as well as a double external wall, called a retaining wall. There are almost no traces left of Ahab’s palace, however, within the confines of the palace, on the ground of the courtyard of Ahab’s palace. Were found unusual ivory engravings set out in Phoenician style (Sebastia-ivory), that, in part, relate to that period and were apparently used to decorate the throne – the ivory house built by Ahab (Kings I – 22:39). Storerooms containing “Sebastian pottery” were found inside the palace, apparently dating from the period of the reign of Jeroboam the Second, shared with Hebrew writing in black ink (Ostrakon). The accepted theory is that these shards were documents recordings oil and wine shipments that had been brought from all parts of the kingdom to the storerooms in the king’s palace as payment of taxes. Graffiti insults Mars the Roman pillars of the once grand basilica… a spray-painted Muslim proclamation of faith marks the lintel of the Eastern Orthodox Church of St. John the Baptist. A man named Simon, who practiced magic in the city, amazed the people of Samaria, saying that he was somebody great. They all paid attention to Simon, saying “This man is the power of God that is called Great.” And that he paid attention to him because for a long time he amazed them with his magic. They believed Philip as he preached to them his good news about the name of Jesus Christ and the kingdom of God, both men and women were baptized. Simon also believed after he was baptized he continued with Philip. Seeing the signs of miracles performed, he was amazed.
“Definitions for Samariasəˈmɛər I ə.” What Does Samaria Mean? N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.definitions.net/definition/Samaria>.
(n.d.): n. pag. Web. <http://www.revjim.ca/sermons/20090125srm.pdf>.
N.p., n.d. Web. <http://bible-studys.org/Bible%20Books/Acts/Acts%20Chapter%208.html>.
“EVEN SIMON HIMSELF BELIEVED.” EVEN SIMON HIMSELF BELIEVED. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.watermillchurchofchrist.org/Sermons/Text/042306%20Even%20Simon%20Himself%20Believed.htm>.
“BibleGateway.” Acts 8:9-25 ESV. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Acts%2B8%3A9-25&version=ESV>.
“Topical Bible: Samaria.” Topical Bible: Samaria. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://biblehub.com/topical/s/samaria.htm>.
“Samaria.” – Livius. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.livius.org/articles/place/samaria/>.
“BibleGateway.” Acts 8:9-13 ESV. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Acts%2B8%3A9-13&version=ESV>.
“Samaria – Crystalinks.” Samaria – Crystalinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.crystalinks.com/samaria.html>.
New Testament Bible Dictionary
The book of Romans reveals events that happen between 57 when Paul wrote the letters to the Romans and 59 AD. It was originally written in Latin because Romans spoke Latin, Paul had to translate for other believers in Rome. It was also written in Hebrew and Greek, and contains some literary genre, which was personal letters of introduction; Romans is one of Pauline’s letters; the whole book is a letter to Paul to the Church of Rome. In some parts are more formal, like sermon and exhortation. The Book of Romans was divided into 16 Chapters. Roman is a book to savor, slowly and carefully. Paul is developing an argument, and his logic unfolds thought by thought from the very first chapter. You may recognize many well-known verses in Romans; one these in their context as a part of Paul’s overall presentation. Romans divides into a clear outline. Chapters 1-3 introduce the book and give the need for the proper news of the gospel. The end of Chapter 1-3 introduce the book and give the necessity of the Bible,” compresses the core messages in a brief paragraph. Chapters 4 and 5 expand on that messages. Romans 6-8 discuss the working out of the gospel in a Christian’s believers life. Paul then pauses for three chapters (9-11) to link his argument to the Old Testament history of the Jews. From there, he proceeds to give practical advice on specific problems (12-16). The main themes of Romans are the basic gospel of God’s plan of salvation and happiness for all humankind, Jews, and Gentile alike even though the same theme has suggested justification by faith. In loving kindness, God provided a way to redeem us through Jesus Christ, who sacrifice his life for our sins-debt through his sacrificial death. The main personalities of the book are Paul (The Apostle) and Phoebe, who delivered this letter. The main events depicted through Paul, which Paul was Corinth, on his way to Israel to provide a collection for the poor in Jerusalem. He also planned to visit the Church of Rome on his way to Spain. The book Romans reveal answers to question and supplies of information on many topics such as salvation, the sovereignty of God, Spiritual, Spiritual growth, Judgement, and the righteousness of God. Scholars describe it as the Gospel and righteousness of God, which received only by faith in the atoning death of Jesus Christ. The purpose of book Romans was to proclaim the glory of Jesus Christ by teaching edify, doctrine and courage the believers who would receive his letter. Paul introduces himself and his theology to them; to stress the unity of Gentiles and Jews in Christianity.
“Romans Summary.” Romans Summary. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://biblehub.com/summary/romans/1.htm>.
“GotQuestions.org.” GotQuestions.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.gotquestions.org/Book-of-Romans.html>.
“Literary Overviews of the New Testament Books.” Literary Overviews of the New Testament Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/NT_Overviews.htm#Rom>.
“Romans.” Intro to. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.biblica.com/en-us/bible/online-bible/scholar-notes/niv-study-bible/intro-to-romans/>.
“Romans Summary.” Romans Summary. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.learningscriptures.info/bible-summaries/romans-summary.htm>.
“Introduction to the Book of Romans.” About.com Religion & Spirituality. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://christianity.about.com/od/newtestamentbooks/a/Book-Of-Romans.htm>.
Titus was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. Titus, was the eldest son of Emperor Vespasian, was born in AD 39. He and Claudius’ son of Britannicus, were close friends and were educated together. From AD to 63 he served in Britain and Germany as a military tribune. Afterward, he returned to Rome and married Arrecina Tertulla, who was the daughter of a former commander of the Praetorian guard. Arrecina died, a year later and Titus married Marcia Furnilla. But he later divorced Maria in AD 65 soon after the birth of his daughter Flavia Julia, who married her cousin Flavius Sabinus, but after his death in 84, she became a mistress to her uncle Domitian. The same year, Titus was appointed quaestor and became commander of one of his father’s three legions in Judaea in AD 67. Titus was charged with the Jews war and the large-scale campaign in 70 which capture and destruction of Jerusalem in September. He also received tribunician power and was of his father Vespasian colleague in the censorship of 73 and several consulships. In 70, Titus suppressed doubtless concerns with successions, but when Vespasian died on June 23, he peacefully and promptly his success was lavish expenditure, some were purely personal largesse. And some were like assistance to Campania after Vesuvius in 79 and the rebuilding of Rome after the fire in 80. Titus sudden death at the age of forty-one and was hastened by Dominitan, who was his successor as emperor.
Person, and Kaela Schwent. “Titus Prezi.” Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <https://prezi.com/ppdvu0mvn0xw/titus-prezi/>.
N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.livius.org/articles/person/titus/>.
“Titus.” Titus. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/titus.html>.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Titus.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.britannica.com/biography/Titus>.
Jaffa, also known Japho or Joppa, is the Southern. Oldest part of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, an ancient port city in Israel. Jaffa is located about 30 miles, 48 kilometers south of Caesarea. Jaffa has Jews majority mostly from the Mid-Eastern and North African countries with an Arab Christian and Muslim population. Jappa appears for the first time in the list of cities that Thutmose III captured in 15 century BC. Jaffa is one of oldest functioning harbors in the world. Peter came to Joppa from Lydda to raise Tabitha from dea. While in Jappa, Peter(The Apostle) stayed at the house of Simon, the Tanner. The Natural Harbor of Jaffa, located near a defendable hill, it was in the Middle Bronze age, about 4,000 years ago. The Canaanite Seaport City is valuable access to the Mediterranean Sea. Jaffa is also mentioned in the Story of Jonah, the Son of Amittai. Joppa is on a portion of cliffs jutting out over the sea in the region given to the tribe of Dan as their inheritance. It is one of the oldest cities in the world. The Hebrew meaning for Joppa is “beautiful”, and the city is indeed beautiful. An old Mediterranean port sits at the top of the cliff, complete with Arabian spices and a mosque. Some of the ruins and walls date back to the time of Ramses II, Pharaoh of Egypt. Archeologists are currently digging in an older section of the rubble, in search of clues to the city’s past. Most archeological finds are dated by the pottery shards found outside the debris of homes. Pottery remains are numerous because once a clay pot or vessel broke, it became useless, and was just tossed onto a trash pile. Metal is rarely found because it was relatively costly and could be re-melted and reused. The cedars of Lebanon used to build Solomon’s Temple were brought to Jerusalem from this port (1Ki 5:6). In many of the Old Testament parables, men of stature and power in society were symbolically portrayed as Cedars of Lebanon (Jgs 9:15). This seaport was coveted by many conquering nations that passed through the region. Joppa is no longer the bustling seaport of Biblical times, but it supplies a significant amount of fresh fish to Israel’s markets and restaurants. Below the fort walls are tiered homes and shops that slope down the cliffs and end at the harbor wharf. It was along the sandy shores of this ancient harbor that Jonah embarked on his journey across the Mediterranean sea to Tarshish. He was running away from a divinely appointed task only to find himself in the belly of a whale (Jn 1:3). Jonah was not receptive to God’s plan to offer redemption not only to the Jewish people but all humanity. Jonah’s grave-like experience in the belly of the great fish foreshadowed the burial and resurrection of Jesus, who was entombed three days and three nights (Mt 12:40).
Joppa (BiblePlaces.com).” BiblePlacescom. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.bibleplaces.com/joppa/>.
N.p., n.d. Web. <http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/march-2013/article/the-egyptian-fortress-in-jaffa>.
“Jaffa.” Jaffa. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/Jaffa.html>.